Experience Requirements Overview

  • Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
  • Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
  • Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
  • Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Detailed Work Activities

  • Treat medical emergencies.
  • Provide health and wellness advice to patients, program participants, or caregivers.
  • Advise communities or institutions regarding health or safety issues.
  • Calculate numerical data for medical activities.
  • Analyze test data or images to inform diagnosis or treatment.


  • Administer emergency cardiac care for life-threatening heart problems, such as cardiac arrest and heart attack.
  • Advise patients and community members concerning diet, activity, hygiene, or disease prevention.
  • Answer questions that patients have about their health and well-being.
  • Calculate valve areas from blood flow velocity measurements.
  • Compare measurements of heart wall thickness and chamber sizes to standards to identify abnormalities, using the results of an echocardiogram.
  • Conduct electrocardiogram (EKG), phonocardiogram, echocardiogram, or other cardiovascular tests to record patients' cardiac activity, using specialized electronic test equipment, recording devices, or laboratory instruments.
  • Conduct exercise electrocardiogram tests to monitor cardiovascular activity under stress.
  • Conduct research to develop or test medications, treatments, or procedures that prevent or control disease or injury.
  • Conduct tests of the pulmonary system, using a spirometer or other respiratory testing equipment.
  • Design and explain treatment plans, based on patient information such as medical history, reports, and examination results.
  • Diagnose cardiovascular conditions, using cardiac catheterization.
  • Diagnose medical conditions of patients, using records, reports, test results, or examination information.
  • Explain procedures and discuss test results or prescribed treatments with patients.
  • Inject contrast media into patients' blood vessels.
  • Monitor patient progress following cardiac surgery.
  • Monitor patients' conditions and progress, and reevaluate treatments, as necessary.
  • Observe ultrasound display screen, and listen to signals to record vascular information, such as blood pressure, limb volume changes, oxygen saturation, and cerebral circulation.
  • Obtain and record patient information, including patient identification, medical history, and examination results.
  • Operate diagnostic imaging equipment to produce contrast-enhanced radiographs of heart and cardiovascular system.
  • Order medical tests, such as echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and angiograms.
  • Perform minimally invasive surgical procedures, such as implanting pacemakers and defibrillators.
  • Perform vascular procedures, such as balloon angioplasty and stents.
  • Prescribe heart medication to treat or prevent heart problems.
  • Recommend surgeons or surgical procedures.
  • Supervise or train cardiology technologists or students.
  • Talk to other physicians about patients to create a treatment plan.

Data Source: This page includes information from the O*NET 28.0 Database by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA). Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA. This page includes Employment Projections program, Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.