Experience Requirements Overview

  • Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
  • Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
  • Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
  • Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Education, Training and Experience

Required Level of Education: Post-Doctoral Training

Related Work Experience: Over 4 years, up to and including 6 years

On-Site or In-Plant Training: Over 3 months, up to and including 6 months

On-the-Job Training: Over 1 month, up to and including 3 months

Detailed Work Activities

  • Testify at legal or legislative proceedings.
  • Analyze medical data to determine cause of death.
  • Manage healthcare operations.
  • Maintain medical or professional knowledge.
  • Develop health assessment methods or programs.
  • Train medical providers.
  • Conduct research to increase knowledge about medical issues.
  • Present medical research reports.
  • Supervise technical medical personnel.
  • Collect biological specimens from patients.
  • Research microbiological or chemical processes or structures.
  • Test biological specimens to gather information about patient conditions.
  • Diagnose medical conditions.
  • Analyze laboratory specimens to detect abnormalities or other problems.
  • Prepare reports summarizing patient diagnostic or care activities.
  • Analyze test data or images to inform diagnosis or treatment.
  • Communicate test or assessment results to medical professionals.
  • Collaborate with healthcare professionals to plan or provide treatment.
  • Operate laboratory equipment to analyze medical samples.

Work Values

Achievement

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Working Conditions

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Recognition

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Relationships

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Support

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

Independence

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Tasks

  • Examine microscopic samples to identify diseases or other abnormalities.
  • Diagnose diseases or study medical conditions, using techniques such as gross pathology, histology, cytology, cytopathology, clinical chemistry, immunology, flow cytometry, or molecular biology.
  • Write pathology reports summarizing analyses, results, and conclusions.
  • Communicate pathologic findings to surgeons or other physicians.
  • Identify the etiology, pathogenesis, morphological change, and clinical significance of diseases.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, or participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in pathology.
  • Consult with physicians about ordering and interpreting tests or providing treatments.
  • Analyze and interpret results from tests, such as microbial or parasite tests, urine analyses, hormonal assays, fine needle aspirations (FNAs), and polymerase chain reactions (PCRs).
  • Review cases by analyzing autopsies, laboratory findings, or case investigation reports.
  • Manage medical laboratories.
  • Develop or adopt new tests or instruments to improve diagnosis of diseases.
  • Educate physicians, students, and other personnel in medical laboratory professions, such as medical technology, cytotechnology, or histotechnology.
  • Plan and supervise the work of the pathology staff, residents, or visiting pathologists.
  • Perform autopsies to determine causes of deaths.
  • Diagnose infections, such as Hepatitis B and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), by conducting tests to detect the antibodies that patients' immune systems make to fight such infections.
  • Obtain specimens by performing procedures, such as biopsies or fine needle aspirations (FNAs) of superficial nodules.
  • Conduct genetic analyses of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or chromosomes to diagnose small biopsies and cell samples.
  • Conduct research and present scientific findings.
  • Testify in depositions or trials as an expert witness.

Work Styles

Achievement/Effort

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Persistence

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Initiative

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Leadership

Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.

Cooperation

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Concern for Others

Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.

Social Orientation

Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

Self-Control

Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.

Stress Tolerance

Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.

Adaptability/Flexibility

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Dependability

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Attention to Detail

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Integrity

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Independence

Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.

Innovation

Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Analytical Thinking

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Data Source: This page includes information from the O*NET 28.0 Database by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA). Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA. This page includes Employment Projections program, Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.