Experience Requirements Overview

  • Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
  • Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
  • Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
  • Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Detailed Work Activities

  • Analyze patient data to determine patient needs or treatment goals.
  • Conduct research to increase knowledge about medical issues.
  • Confer with other professionals to plan patient care.
  • Prescribe treatments or therapies.
  • Prescribe medications.
  • Supervise patient care personnel.
  • Examine patients to assess general physical condition.
  • Diagnose medical conditions.
  • Sterilize medical equipment or instruments.
  • Follow protocols or regulations for healthcare activities.
  • Confer with family members to discuss client treatment plans or progress.
  • Explain medical procedures or test results to patients or family members.
  • Analyze test data or images to inform diagnosis or treatment.
  • Schedule patient procedures or appointments.
  • Manage healthcare operations.
  • Order medical supplies or equipment.
  • Monitor patient progress or responses to treatments.
  • Operate on patients to treat conditions.
  • Record patient medical histories.
  • Assist healthcare practitioners during surgery.
  • Advise medical personnel regarding healthcare issues.
  • Refer patients to other healthcare practitioners or health resources.

Tasks

  • Refer patient to medical specialist or other practitioners when necessary.
  • Analyze patient's medical history, medication allergies, physical condition, and examination results to verify operation's necessity and to determine best procedure.
  • Conduct research to develop and test surgical techniques that can improve operating procedures and outcomes.
  • Consult with patient's other medical care specialists, such as cardiologist and endocrinologist, to determine if surgery is necessary.
  • Describe preoperative and postoperative treatments and procedures, such as sedatives, diets, antibiotics, or preparation and treatment of the patient's operative area, to parents or guardians of the patient.
  • Direct and coordinate activities of nurses, assistants, specialists, residents, and other medical staff.
  • Examine fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, and diagnose health issues to determine need for intervention, such as surgery.
  • Examine instruments, equipment, and operating room to ensure sterility.
  • Examine patient to obtain information on medical condition and surgical risk.
  • Follow established surgical techniques during the operation.
  • Inform parents and guardians of child's health problems and surgical procedures through various channels, such as in-person and telecommunication systems.
  • Interpret results of preoperative tests and physical examinations.
  • Manage surgery services, including planning, scheduling and coordination, determination of procedures, or procurement of supplies and equipment.
  • Monitor patient's recovery, making follow-up visits and using postoperative assessment techniques, such as blood and imaging tests.
  • Operate on fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents to correct deformities, repair injuries, prevent and treat diseases, or improve or restore patients' functions.
  • Perform transplantation operations, such as organ transplants, on fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents.
  • Prepare case histories.
  • Provide consultation and surgical assistance to other physicians and surgeons.

Data Source: This page includes information from the O*NET 28.0 Database by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA). Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA. This page includes Employment Projections program, Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.