Experience Requirements Overview

  • Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
  • Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
  • Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
  • Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Education, Training and Experience

Required Level of Education: Post-Doctoral Training

Related Work Experience: Over 4 years, up to and including 6 years

On-Site or In-Plant Training: Up to and including 1 month

On-the-Job Training: Anything beyond short demonstration, up to and including 1 month

Detailed Work Activities

  • Treat chronic diseases or disorders.
  • Analyze test data or images to inform diagnosis or treatment.
  • Administer non-intravenous medications.
  • Prescribe treatments or therapies.
  • Prescribe medications.
  • Diagnose medical conditions.
  • Treat acute illnesses, infections, or injuries.
  • Monitor patient progress or responses to treatments.
  • Collect medical information from patients, family members, or other medical professionals.
  • Record patient medical histories.
  • Explain medical procedures or test results to patients or family members.
  • Provide health and wellness advice to patients, program participants, or caregivers.
  • Advise communities or institutions regarding health or safety issues.
  • Refer patients to other healthcare practitioners or health resources.
  • Immunize patients.
  • Advise medical personnel regarding healthcare issues.
  • Supervise patient care personnel.
  • Operate on patients to treat conditions.
  • Design public or employee health programs.
  • Direct healthcare delivery programs.
  • Conduct research to increase knowledge about medical issues.
  • Prepare official health documents or records.

Work Values

Achievement

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Working Conditions

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Recognition

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Relationships

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Support

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

Independence

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Tasks

  • Analyze records, reports, test results, or examination information to diagnose medical condition of patient.
  • Treat internal disorders, such as hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, or problems of the lung, brain, kidney, or gastrointestinal tract.
  • Prescribe or administer medication, therapy, and other specialized medical care to treat or prevent illness, disease, or injury.
  • Manage and treat common health problems, such as infections, influenza or pneumonia, as well as serious, chronic, and complex illnesses, in adolescents, adults, and the elderly.
  • Provide and manage long-term, comprehensive medical care, including diagnosis and nonsurgical treatment of diseases, for adult patients in an office or hospital.
  • Explain procedures and discuss test results or prescribed treatments with patients.
  • Advise patients and community members concerning diet, activity, hygiene, and disease prevention.
  • Make diagnoses when different illnesses occur together or in situations where the diagnosis may be obscure.
  • Refer patient to medical specialist or other practitioner when necessary.
  • Monitor patients' conditions and progress and reevaluate treatments as necessary.
  • Collect, record, and maintain patient information, such as medical history, reports, or examination results.
  • Provide consulting services to other doctors caring for patients with special or difficult problems.
  • Advise surgeon of a patient's risk status and recommend appropriate intervention to minimize risk.
  • Immunize patients to protect them from preventable diseases.
  • Direct and coordinate activities of nurses, students, assistants, specialists, therapists, and other medical staff.
  • Prepare government or organizational reports on birth, death, and disease statistics, workforce evaluations, or the medical status of individuals.
  • Conduct research to develop or test medications, treatments, or procedures to prevent or control disease or injury.
  • Operate on patients to remove, repair, or improve functioning of diseased or injured body parts and systems.
  • Plan, implement, or administer health programs in hospitals, businesses, or communities for prevention and treatment of injuries or illnesses.

Work Styles

Achievement/Effort

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Persistence

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Initiative

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Leadership

Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.

Cooperation

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Concern for Others

Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.

Social Orientation

Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

Self-Control

Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.

Stress Tolerance

Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.

Adaptability/Flexibility

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Dependability

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Attention to Detail

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Integrity

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Independence

Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.

Innovation

Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Analytical Thinking

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Data Source: This page includes information from the O*NET 28.0 Database by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA). Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA. This page includes Employment Projections program, Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.