Experience Requirements Overview

  • Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
  • A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
  • Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
  • Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.

Education, Training and Experience

Required Level of Education: Bachelor's Degree

Related Work Experience: Over 2 years, up to and including 4 years

On-Site or In-Plant Training: Up to and including 1 month

On-the-Job Training: Over 6 months, up to and including 1 year

Detailed Work Activities

  • Select tools, equipment, or technologies for use in operations or projects.
  • Operate industrial equipment.
  • Purchase materials, equipment, or other resources.
  • Test performance of electrical, electronic, mechanical, or integrated systems or equipment.
  • Fabricate devices or components.
  • Design electronic or computer equipment or instrumentation.
  • Identify new applications for existing technologies.
  • Research advanced engineering designs or applications.
  • Analyze operational data to evaluate operations, processes or products.
  • Create physical models or prototypes.
  • Prepare detailed work plans.
  • Maintain operational records or records systems.
  • Document technical design details.
  • Direct industrial production activities.
  • Update technical knowledge.
  • Train personnel on proper operational procedures.
  • Design energy production or management equipment or systems.
  • Design industrial processing systems.
  • Prepare research or technical reports.
  • Write reports or evaluations.
  • Prepare proposal documents.

Work Values

Achievement

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Working Conditions

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Recognition

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Relationships

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Support

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

Independence

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Tasks

  • Analyze system performance or operational requirements.
  • Develop optical or imaging systems, such as optical imaging products, optical components, image processes, signal process technologies, or optical systems.
  • Develop or test photonic prototypes or models.
  • Design, integrate, or test photonics systems or components.
  • Assist in the transition of photonic prototypes to production.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, continue education, or participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in the field.
  • Write reports or proposals related to photonics research or development projects.
  • Conduct testing to determine functionality or optimization or to establish limits of photonics systems or components.
  • Determine applications of photonics appropriate to meet product objectives or features.
  • Conduct research on new photonics technologies.
  • Design electro-optical sensing or imaging systems.
  • Document photonics system or component design processes, including objectives, issues, or outcomes.
  • Design photonics products, such as light sources, displays, or photovoltaics, to achieve increased energy efficiency.
  • Train operators, engineers, or other personnel.
  • Analyze, fabricate, or test fiber-optic links.
  • Design gas lasers, solid state lasers, infrared, or other light emitting or light sensitive devices.
  • Create or maintain photonic design histories.
  • Oversee or provide expertise on manufacturing, assembly, or fabrication processes.
  • Determine commercial, industrial, scientific, or other uses for electro-optical applications or devices.
  • Design solar energy photonics or other materials or devices to generate energy.
  • Design or redesign optical fibers to minimize energy loss.
  • Develop photonics sensing or manufacturing technologies to improve the efficiency of manufacturing or related processes.
  • Develop laser-processed designs, such as laser-cut medical devices.
  • Design or develop new crystals for photonics applications.
  • Design laser machining equipment for purposes such as high-speed ablation.
  • Select, purchase, set up, operate, or troubleshoot state-of-the-art laser cutting equipment.

Work Styles

Achievement/Effort

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Persistence

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Initiative

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Leadership

Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.

Cooperation

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Concern for Others

Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.

Social Orientation

Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

Self-Control

Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.

Stress Tolerance

Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.

Adaptability/Flexibility

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Dependability

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Attention to Detail

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Integrity

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Independence

Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.

Innovation

Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Analytical Thinking

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Data Source: This page includes information from the O*NET 28.0 Database by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA). Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA. This page includes Employment Projections program, Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.