Experience Requirements Overview

  • Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
  • Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
  • Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
  • Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Education, Training and Experience

Required Level of Education: Doctoral Degree

Related Work Experience: Over 2 years, up to and including 4 years

On-Site or In-Plant Training: Up to and including 1 month

On-the-Job Training: Over 3 months, up to and including 6 months

Detailed Work Activities

  • Prepare proposal documents.
  • Supervise engineering or other technical personnel.
  • Operate precision equipment to control microscopic or nanoscopic processes.
  • Identify new applications for existing technologies.
  • Advise customers on the use of products or services.
  • Measure physical or chemical properties of materials or objects.
  • Prepare operational reports.
  • Explain engineering drawings, specifications, or other technical information.
  • Prepare contracts, disclosures, or applications.
  • Develop technical methods or processes.
  • Provide technical guidance to other personnel.
  • Test performance of electrical, electronic, mechanical, or integrated systems or equipment.
  • Devise research or testing protocols.
  • Coordinate activities with suppliers, contractors, clients, or other departments.
  • Design materials for industrial or commercial applications.
  • Design micro- or nano-scale materials, devices, or systems.
  • Create physical models or prototypes.
  • Research engineering applications of emerging technologies.
  • Design alternative energy systems.
  • Develop operational methods or processes that use green materials or emphasize sustainability.
  • Research engineering aspects of biological or chemical processes.

Work Values

Achievement

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Working Conditions

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Recognition

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Relationships

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Support

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

Independence

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Tasks

  • Provide scientific or technical guidance or expertise to scientists, engineers, technologists, technicians, or others, using knowledge of chemical, analytical, or biological processes as applied to micro and nanoscale systems.
  • Supervise technologists or technicians engaged in nanotechnology research or production.
  • Conduct research related to a range of nanotechnology topics, such as packaging, heat transfer, fluorescence detection, nanoparticle dispersion, hybrid systems, liquid systems, nanocomposites, nanofabrication, optoelectronics, or nanolithography.
  • Synthesize, process, or characterize nanomaterials, using advanced tools or techniques.
  • Prepare reports, deliver presentations, or participate in program review activities to communicate engineering results or recommendations.
  • Design or conduct tests of new nanotechnology products, processes, or systems.
  • Create designs or prototypes for nanosystem applications, such as biomedical delivery systems or atomic force microscopes.
  • Write proposals to secure external funding or to partner with other companies.
  • Generate high-resolution images or measure force-distance curves, using techniques such as atomic force microscopy.
  • Develop processes or identify equipment needed for pilot or commercial nanoscale scale production.
  • Provide technical guidance or support to customers on topics such as nanosystem start-up, maintenance, or use.
  • Engineer production processes for specific nanotechnology applications, such as electroplating, nanofabrication, or epoxy.
  • Apply nanotechnology to improve the performance or reduce the environmental impact of energy products, such as fuel cells or solar cells.
  • Identify new applications for existing nanotechnologies.
  • Design or engineer nanomaterials, nanodevices, nano-enabled products, or nanosystems, using three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Design nano-enabled products with reduced toxicity, increased durability, or improved energy efficiency.
  • Coordinate or supervise the work of suppliers or vendors in the designing, building, or testing of nanosystem devices, such as lenses or probes.
  • Design nano-based manufacturing processes to minimize water, chemical, or energy use, as well as to reduce waste production.
  • Design nanosystems with components such as nanocatalysts or nanofiltration devices to clean specific pollutants from hazardous waste sites.
  • Prepare nanotechnology-related invention disclosures or patent applications.
  • Reengineer nanomaterials to improve biodegradability.
  • Integrate nanotechnology with antimicrobial properties into products, such as household or medical appliances, to reduce the development of bacteria or other microbes.
  • Develop catalysis or other green chemistry methods to synthesize nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, nanocrystals, nanorods, or nanowires.
  • Design nanoparticle catalysts to detect or remove chemical or other pollutants from water, soil, or air.
  • Develop green building nanocoatings, such as self-cleaning, anti-stain, depolluting, anti-fogging, anti-icing, antimicrobial, moisture-resistant, or ultraviolet protectant coatings.

Work Styles

Achievement/Effort

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Persistence

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Initiative

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Leadership

Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.

Cooperation

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Concern for Others

Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.

Social Orientation

Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

Self-Control

Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.

Stress Tolerance

Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.

Adaptability/Flexibility

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Dependability

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Attention to Detail

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Integrity

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Independence

Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.

Innovation

Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Analytical Thinking

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Data Source: This page includes information from the O*NET 28.0 Database by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA). Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA. This page includes Employment Projections program, Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.