Experience Requirements Overview

  • Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
  • Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
  • Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
  • Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Education, Training and Experience

Required Level of Education: Bachelor's Degree

Related Work Experience: Over 2 years, up to and including 4 years

On-Site or In-Plant Training: Up to and including 1 month

On-the-Job Training: Over 6 months, up to and including 1 year

Detailed Work Activities

  • Analyze data to identify or resolve operational problems.
  • Assign duties or work schedules to employees.
  • Evaluate project designs to determine adequacy or feasibility.
  • Apply information technology to solve business or other applied problems.
  • Collaborate with others to determine design specifications or details.
  • Collaborate with others to resolve information technology issues.
  • Analyze data to identify trends or relationships among variables.
  • Develop organizational goals or objectives.
  • Train others in computer interface or software use.
  • Participate in staffing decisions.
  • Develop performance metrics or standards related to information technology.
  • Design integrated computer systems.
  • Monitor the performance of computer networks.
  • Maintain computer hardware.
  • Collaborate on research activities with scientists or technical specialists.
  • Manage budgets for appropriate resource allocation.
  • Manage information technology projects or system activities.
  • Coordinate project activities with other personnel or departments.

Work Values

Achievement

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Working Conditions

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Recognition

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Relationships

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Support

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

Independence

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Tasks

  • Analyze problems to develop solutions involving computer hardware and software.
  • Apply theoretical expertise and innovation to create or apply new technology, such as adapting principles for applying computers to new uses.
  • Assign or schedule tasks to meet work priorities and goals.
  • Meet with managers, vendors, and others to solicit cooperation and resolve problems.
  • Design computers and the software that runs them.
  • Conduct logical analyses of business, scientific, engineering, and other technical problems, formulating mathematical models of problems for solution by computers.
  • Evaluate project plans and proposals to assess feasibility issues.
  • Participate in multidisciplinary projects in areas such as virtual reality, human-computer interaction, or robotics.
  • Consult with users, management, vendors, and technicians to determine computing needs and system requirements.
  • Develop and interpret organizational goals, policies, and procedures.
  • Develop performance standards, and evaluate work in light of established standards.
  • Maintain network hardware and software, direct network security measures, and monitor networks to ensure availability to system users.
  • Direct daily operations of departments, coordinating project activities with other departments.
  • Participate in staffing decisions and direct training of subordinates.
  • Approve, prepare, monitor, and adjust operational budgets.

Work Styles

Achievement/Effort

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Persistence

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Initiative

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Leadership

Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.

Cooperation

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Concern for Others

Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.

Social Orientation

Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

Self-Control

Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.

Stress Tolerance

Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.

Adaptability/Flexibility

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Dependability

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Attention to Detail

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Integrity

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Independence

Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.

Innovation

Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Analytical Thinking

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Data Source: This page includes information from the O*NET 28.0 Database by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA). Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA. This page includes Employment Projections program, Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.